Astronomers Detect Strongest Gamma-Ray Bursts Ever Recorded

Powerful Gamma Ray Burst GRB 190114C

"Continuing efforts with existing gamma-ray telescopes, as well as the new Cherenkov Telescope Array now under construction, promise to bring forth new physical insight into the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the universe". After verifying that the GRB noticed emitted photons within the TeV vary, scientists realized the method used to clarify and mannequin these bursts couldn't account for such a excessive power. Now, astronomers are reporting in Nature magazine that they have observed two such bursts.

"Scientists have been trying to observe very-high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts for a long time", said Dr. Antonio de Ugarte Postigo, a scientist in the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía. She is a co-author of one of three studies on gamma-ray bursts in the November 21 issue of the journal Nature. It was first spotted by two satellites created to detect gamma-ray bursts - the Swift Observatory and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope - and to them, it looked like any other GRB.

They can last from a few milliseconds to a few hours - ejecting particles at almost the speed of light.

The global team of astronomers in this study consists of A de Ugarte Postigo, C. C. Thöne, S. Martin, J. Japelj, A. J. Levan, M. J. Michalowski, J. Selsing, D. A. Kann, S. Schulze, J. T. Palmerio, S. D. Vergani, N. R. Tanvir, K. Bensch, S. Covino, V. D'Elia, M. De Pasquale, A. S. Fruchter, J.

These observations with the MAGIC telescopes revealed photons-or particles of light-from the afterglow of the GRB with an energy between 0.2 and 1 teraelectron volts (TeV.) According to the researchers, this is the highest energy radiation every detected in a gamma ray burst.

The observations provide insights into possibly the most powerful of all explosions in the universe. They arise from outflows of plasma with velocities near the speed of light that are triggered by newly formed neutron stars or black holes. It came from two explosions.

Dr Elizabeth Hays, the Fermi project scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, said: "Much of what we've learned about GRBs over the past couple of decades has come from observing their afterglows at lower energies".

Shock waves that are created from such explosions accelerate electrons nearly to the speed of light and create magnetic fields. Both of its 17-meter telescopes automatically turned to the site of the fading burst.

On January 14, 2019, the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observatory in the Canary Islands captured the highest-energy light ever recorded from a gamma-ray burst.

"It's a trillion times more energetic than visible light".

"It turns out we were missing approximately half of their energy budget until now", Konstancja Satalecka, a scientist who coordinates MAGIC's searches for gamma-ray bursts, said in the release. Ten hours after their alerts, the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) pointed its large, 28-meter gamma-ray telescope to the location of the burst, called GRB 180720B.

Dr Anderson said gamma ray bursts appear in the sky without warning, about once per day. The light from the afterglow is dimmer but lasts longer, allowing astronomers to measure it in detail. It is the inverse Compton scattering that gives some GRB photons the extreme volts of energies.

The newest Hubble images - described this week in the journal Nature - are helping scientists begin to figure out exactly how the collapsing cores of dying massive stars produce such high energy gamma rays. This new observation of astronomers confirms the simulations carried out on Earth.

"Thanks to these new ground-based detections, we're seeing the gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts in a whole new way", Hays said.



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